1) Do the rates of STEM declaration and graduation vary between high schools?
2) Do opportunities to learn science and mathematics vary depending on high schools’ racial composition? 3) What is the relationship between high school racial composition, opportunities to learn available at high schools, and students’ STEM participation in college? 4) Do these relationships vary by racial/ethnic groups?
The Role of High School Racial Composition and Opportunities to Learn in Students' STEM College Participation
1) Do the rates of STEM declaration and graduation vary between high schools?
1.Are charters with different academic models located in different demographic contexts, as measured by the types of students attending those charters and their neighboring TPSs?
2.How does the student composition of charters with a given academic model differ from those of their neighboring TPSs?
3.How uniform are the patterns of differences between charters with a given academic model and their neighboring TPSs?
Exposure to School and Classroom Racial Segregation in Charlotte-Mecklenburg High Schools and Students College Achievement
1. Do the effects of school racial segregation extend into early college outcomes among students graduating from CMS schools and entering the UNC system?
2. Is minority representation in the upper-track classes related to students’ first year college achievement?
3. Do the levels of within-school segregation due to tracking exacerbate the negative effects of attending a segregated black high school?
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceptions of School Climate and Its Association with Student Engagement and Peer Aggression
Do Black, Hispanic, and White students differ in their perceptions of school climate?
Do the associations between authoritative school climate and student engagement as well as peer aggression differ for Black, Hispanic, and White students?
– Their findings indicate that attending a high school with better disciplinary order and stronger school attachment for the students is associated with a decreased likelihood of dropping out, above and beyond individual characteristics.
-They found that higher school SES translated to better school attachment, disciplinary order, and academic climate. Yet, disciplinary climate was the most positively influenced by school SES, with a one standard deviation (SD) increase in school SES being associated with about half a unit increase in disciplinary climate.
-The percentage of minority students was inversely related to school attachment, controlling for model variables.
-There is an indirect effect of school composition on dropping out. The larger the percentage of minority students the less attached they feel to their school so they are more likely to drop out.
– The researchers found that attending a high school with better school attachment greatly reduced the odds of a student being a dropout.
-Attending a school with more disciplinary order also directly de- creased the likelihood that a student was currently identified as a dropout.
-They also found that both prior math achievement and student SES were again strong predictors of whether a student had ever dropped out.
If a student enrolls in a charter school rather than a non-charter school in the same district, what will the student encounter in terms of racial isolation, poverty level, and the school’s performance?
School Substance Use Norms and Racial Composition Moderate Parental and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use
Examine the effects of school substance use norms and school racial composition in predicting adolescent substance use and in moderating parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use.
What is the average gap at different ranges of Black student density, with and without accounting for student and school characteristics?
Growing the Roots of STEM Majors: Female Math and Science High School Faculty and the Participation of Students in STEM
What is the role of the demographics of high school faculty, more specifically the proportion of female math and science teachers, on college students’ decisions to declare and/or major in STEM?
School Choice, Racial Segregation, and Poverty Concentration: Evidence from Pennsylvania Charter School Transfers
1)To what extent are students and schools affected by movement between charter schools and traditional public schools (TPS)? 2) Are student transfers from TPS to brick and mortar (B&M) charter schools associated with increasing racial isolation? How does this vary by geography? 3) Are student transfers from TPSs to charter schools associated with increasing exposure to low-income students? 3) How does this vary by geography? 4) What are the demographic characteristics of the TPSs from which cyber students transfer?
Effects of Student Body Racial and Ethnic Demographics on Community College Student Persistence: A Correlational Inferential Study
1) What is the effect of racial and ethnic community college student body composition on student persistence? 2) Does the racial and ethnic composition of a community college’s student body have differential effects on the persistence of students from different racial and ethnic groups? 3) What is the effect of racial and ethnic student body composition on student academic and social engagement?
Do teachers’ instructional practices differentially affect the mathematics achievement of kindergarten students whose backgrounds differ in terms of their race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and mathematic academic readiness?
How does students’ relationships with school adults impact their educational experiences and future college and career choices?
– Author reports a randomized controlled trial that assigns repeated intergroup contact between members of different ethnic groups. The contact results in exclusionary attitudes toward the outgroup.
– This experiment demonstrates that even very minor demographic
change causes strong exclusionary reactions.
– Exclusionary attitudes can be stimulated by even very minor, noninvasive demographic change: in this case, the introduction of only two persons. Overtly threatening behavior by newcomers is not a necessary component for the stimulation of exclusionary attitudes.
– Developed nations and politically liberal subnational units are expected to experience a politically conservative shift as international migration brings increased intergroup contact.
Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/ Ethnic Achievement Gaps
1. Are the benefits of self-affirmation for black and Hispanic middle school students greater in potentially more threatening school contexts, characterized by the group presence and relative academic position of racially marginalized students?
2. What are the prospects of these interventions to close racial achievement gaps in more and less threatening school environments?
This report estimates school effectiveness in science and mathematics to identify and describe both successful and un-successful schools in STEM fields.
Long-Term Consequences of School Segregation: The Impact of School SES, Racial Density and Racial Diversity on Future Earnings
What is the impact of school socioeconomic status (SES), school racial density, and school racial diversity on students’ future earnings?
H1:As black/white school dissimilarity increase, the black/white achievement gap increases H2:As exposure of black students to white students increases, the black/white achievement gap decreases H3: As exposure of black students to other minority students increases, the black/white achievement gap increases or remains stable H4: As black students become increasingly isolated by themselves, the black/white achievement gap increases.
1) What is the extent of racial, socioeconomic, and linguistic segregation among U.S. high schools? 2) To what degree are student’s cognitive and non-cognitive skills due to school effects and to individual differences among students? 3) What are the relative magnitudes of the effects of socioeconomic, racial, and linguistic segregation on cognitive and non-cognitive skills compared with the effects of student socioeconomic status, ethnic background, and English language status? 4) To what degree does each of three school mechanisms (school inputs, peer influences, and school practices) mediate the effects of school segregation?
The Enduring Impact of Race: Understanding Disparities in Student Disciplinary Infractions and Achievement
To what extent do persistent race gaps in educational outcomes stem from differences in the level of advantage that students bring to school or from differences in opportunities to succeed offered by the schools they attend?
1) Are black students more likely than their white peers to bring up different issues or topics in these classes? If so, are there significant race differences in the degree to which students reference different sociological institutions, cultural symbols, and demographics categories?
2) Do students with different race backgrounds utilize different strategies or resources in these course discussions?
To what degree do Atlanta-area racial and ethnic segregation patterns in public secondary schools reflect those in residential catchment areas?
Ethnic Matching, School Placement, and Mathematics Achievement of African American Students from Kindergarten Through Fifth Grade
1) Do African American students perform better on mathematics achievement test when taught by an African American teacher? 2) What is the effect of African American teachers on the mathematics outcomes of African American students by gender, school poverty, percentage of minorities in school, and type of community?
Examines diversity and racial isolation within charter schools in 40 states and several dozen metropolitan areas.
Investigates whether peer effects are the reason that students from minority-concentrated schools attain less education than students from white-concentrated schools.
Examines the differential effects of teachers on female, minority, and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students’ achievement in Grade 4.
Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Teachers' Perceptions of Young Children's Cognitive Abilities: The Role of Child Background and Classroom Context
1. Are teachers more or less accurate in predicting the cognitive skills of students with particular sociodemographic backgrounds? One would expect a certain amount of inaccuracy in teacher perceptions of their students’ skills. But is this error in teacher estimates randomly distributed, or is it systematically related to children’s socio-demographic characteristics?
2. To what extent do teacher characteristics and classroom and school contexts explain teacher perceptual accuracy? For example, are experienced teachers’ better judges of their students’ skills? Are teacher perceptions more accurate in racially, socioeconomically, or academically homogeneous classrooms? In smaller versus larger classrooms? In public versus private schools?
3. How is teacher accuracy influenced by the interplay between student and teacher or classroom characteristics? For instance, are teachers more accurate in estimating the skills of students with whom they share a racial-ethnic back ground? Are teacher assessments of low-SES children less biased in smaller classrooms?
Offer a social science rationale for Justice Kennedy’s view about narrow tailoring issues and suggesting several approaches to desegregation plans that may meet narrow tailoring requirement.
1) What was the trajectory of integration in Baltimore schools? 2) What structures and ideologies fueled rampant school resegregation?
The Racial/Ethnic Composition of Elementary Schools and Young Children's Academic and Socioemotional Functioning
How are racial/ethnic diversity of the student body and racial/ethnic matching (belongingness) between children and their peers related to socioemotional and academic development after students transition into elementary school?
Family and Contextual Socioeconomic Effects Across Seasons: When Do they Matter for the Achievement Growth of Young Children?
School & neighborhood contexts influence on differences in children’s achievement growth during the kindergarten and first-grade years across seasons.
Family, Neighborhood, and School Settings Across Seasons: When Do Socioeconomic Context and Racial Composition Matter for the Reading Achievement Growth of Young Children?
Assess the degree to which social context and race/ethnic composition- in neighborhoods and schools- affect the reading achievement growth of young children.
Analyze associations between the black-white and Latino-white test score gaps and changes in school minority composition.
Reanalysis and reconceptualization of the Coleman report through a 2-level hierarchical linear model.
An Organizational Perspective on the Origins of Instructional Segregation: School Composition and Use of Within-Class Ability Grouping in American Kindergartens
Investigate the degree to which racial and ethnic composition of schools is associated with use of ability grouping practices as early as kindergarten.
Examine the difference in cultural flexibility between black and white students enrolled in schools with different racial and ethnic compositions.
Develops a theoretical model of educational peer effects and then empiracally tests whether or not they exist.
Examine the relationship between 10th grade science proficiency and school context factors related to school environment, courses, and teachers.