– The analyses indicated that districts per-student funding allocations, the days of instruction, teachers’ knowledge and experience, and some aspects of teachers’ professional development participation were significantly associated with student performance on AP science examinations that was better than predicted by students’ Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) scores.
– Districts’ per-student total funding allocations and the length of the school year have positive significant associations with students’ AP performance gains.
– Teachers’ knowledge and experience had positive significant associations with students’ AP performance gains. Therefore, incentivizing experienced and skilled teachers to be recruited and retained within low-SES urban schools (and schools with urban characteristics) should be further explored.
– Participation in Professional Development(PD) activities that teachers rated as effective for helping them teach redesigned AP science courses and participation in unconventional face-to-face PD activities such as teacher-initiated meetings, mentoring or coaching activities, and conference participations were positively and significantly associated with students’ AP performance gains