-MESA participation increases students’ odds of taking AP STEM courses in high school and their aspirations for declaring a STEM major in college.
– These effects are driven primarily by black and white students, respectively.
– Latino and Asian students remain largely unaffected by MESA partiipation.
– MESA may improve black students’ high school STEM engagement but may have little impact on black and Latino students’ STEM outcomes in college.
The K-12 Integration, Desegregation, and Segregation Archive is a searchable database holding detailed abstracts of scholarship about the relationships among school and classroom ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic (SES) composition and a range of educational outcomes from the earliest years through college. You can search it by typing in the search field above or filter it using the options in the sidebar. Abstracts are sorted by most recent publication year and primary author’s last name Read more >>
Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in the Effect of MESA on AP STEM Coursework and College STEM Major Aspirations
-MESA participation increases students’ odds of taking AP STEM courses in high school and their aspirations for declaring a STEM major in college.
– School-based hiring is associated with a larger gap in the distribution of teacher quality between advantaged and disadvantaged schools.
– There is an association between school-based hiring and inequality of achievement based on socioeconomic status of students.
– School-based hiring may contribute to exacerbating inequality in learning opportunities and increasing family background’s positive eﬀect on achievement.
– ESCS (a proxy of family SES) is positively associated with student performance in mathematics and science.
– School-based hiring is not associated with student performance on average, but school-based hiring is associated with the larger achievement gap between high- and low-SES students.
– More school autonomy in hiring was associated with a larger gap in the distribution of teacher quality across schools as well as larger socioeconomic achievement inequality.
– School-level mean SES has a positive and significant relationship with math and science achievement.
How School Socioeconomic Status Affects Achievement Growth across School Transitions in Early Educational Careers
– Findings suggest that a student’s elementary SES composition has a legacy effect on middle school achievement growth net of his
or her own achievement growth and middle school SES composition.
– SES composition effects differ depending on the timing of exposure and a student’s individual free and reduced lunch (FRL) status.
– Findings suggest that early education contexts are critical for math achievement growth in general.
– The authors’ findings show that school segregation by socioeconomic status is problematic for achievement growth for
– Disadvantages from the elementary school context carry over to the middle school context, and the SES composition effect of students’ middle school depends on students’ prior school experiences.
-The author review of the literature about the relationships among SES and educational outcomes revealed surprisingly few SES threshold studies relative to the enormous corpus of research on SES composition effects.
– With few exceptions, the very small number of U.S. studies that report thresholds effects typically were conducted by a school district’s internal staff using cross-sectional data (only one year) for a subpopulation of district’s students.
-Conclusions reached in these studies arguably apply only to the students in the district who took part in the study, in the year in which the data were collected.
-The studies described in this report are not an empirical foundation upon which general educational policy regarding SES thresholds can be reliably or validly based.
– Educational decision makers should focus on reducing concentrations of school-level poverty to as low a level as is feasible given the available demographic mix, and avoid policies based on the unsupported notion that there are poverty thresholds above and below which student achievement levels can be predicted.
– There is not yet a body of systematic, reliable, and valid evidence that school poverty thresholds exist, and that they influence student achievement outcomes.
Inequality in Reading and Math Skills Forms Mainly before Kindergarten: A Replication, and Partial Correction, of ‘‘Are Schools the Great Equalizer?’’
– When the authors use the new test scores, they find that variance is substantial at the start of kindergarten and does not grow but actually shrinks over the next two to three years. This finding, which was not evident in the original Great Equalizer
study, implicates the years before kindergarten as the primary source of inequality in elementary reading and math.
– Total score variance grows during most summers and shrinks during most school years, suggesting that schools reduce inequality overall.
– Changes in inequality are small after kindergarten and do not replicate consistently across grades, subjects, or cohorts. That said, socioeconomic gaps tend to shrink during the school year and grow during the summer, while the black-white gap tends to follow the opposite pattern.
– Socioeconomic gaps tend to shrink during the school year and grow during the summer, while the black-white gap tends to follow the opposite pattern.
– Inequality in basic reading and math skill originates mainly in early childhood, before kindergarten begins.
– There are substantial socioeconomic differences in the subjects that young people study from age 14 to 16.
– Young people from advantaged households take more selective subjects, have higher odds of doing three or more facilitating subjects, higher odds of studying a full set of EBacc-eligible subjects (including English, Maths, History or Geography, two sciences and a modern or ancient language), but lower odds of taking Applied GCSEs (e.g. Applied Hospitality, Applied Health or Applied Manufacturing) than less advantaged young people.
– There were important differences by school characteristics, which may be a result of differential opportunities, subjects offered and within school policies.
– Even holding other factors constant, pupils in non-selective schools within selective local authorities study a less academically selective set of subjects.
– When considering university entry, and admission to high-status universities in particular, there are large raw differences associated with studying more academic combinations of subjects.
However, once differences in young people’s backgrounds and prior attainment associated with these differences in subjects studied are taken into account, these differences are, at most,
– The results for studying the full set of EBacc subjects and for studying any applied subjects do show residual associations with university attendance.
– If young people from different socioeconomic backgrounds were studying a more similar curriculum between ages 14 and 16 it would be unlikely to make much of difference to the inequality in university entry highlighted by previous studies.
– Household income, home ownership and higher parental education increase the odds of taking three STEM subjects
– Socio-economic differentials in access to STEM are largely driven by prior attainment.
– Participation in STEM subjects does not vary by school characteristics, with the exception of the proportion of Free School Meals (FSM) in the school which is negatively associated with doing three or more STEM subjects.
– Overall, 68% of students in the kindergarten sample and 69% of first grade students were assigned to teachers who share their ethno-racial identity.
– Overall, 38% of kindergarten and 71% in first-grade classes use ability grouping for reading.
– 27% of African American kindergartners were placed in low ability groups compared with 25% of Latino/a kindergartners and 18% of White kindergarten students.
– Around 44% of African American and 46% of Latino/a first graders were placed in low ability groups compared with 37% of White first graders.
– Having a same-race teacher has no direct and independent effect on student placement in higher ability groups in the kindergarten.
– By first grade, placement with same-race teachers has a strong positive and significant effect on Latino/a students’ ability group placement and a marginally positive effect on African American students’ ability group placement.
– Once previous ability group placement is controlled for, placement with same-race teachers continue to be a positive and significant predictor of Latino/a students’ ability group placement in the first grade.
– Teachers’ perceptions about students’ learning abilities are influenced to a certain extent by student–teacher ethno-racial congruence resulting in significant postive effects on higher group placements in kindergarten and first grade.
– Both African American and Latino/a students are significantly less likely to be placed in higher reading ability groups compared with White students.
– Male kindergartners are significantly less likely to be placed in higher ability groups.
– The higher the percentage of African American students in class, the more likely students will be placed in higher ability groups.
– Students from higher SES are more likely to be placed in higher ability groups. However, as the average classroom SES increases, students are significantly less likely to be placed in higher ability groups.
– Schools, as opposed to families, may be the primary vehicle for developing effective strategy use practices for students and thus,
targeted interventions may be particularly useful for male students
attending low SES schools.
– One learning strategy (i.e., control strategies) was found to relate signiﬁcantly and positively to achievement.
– These strategies were used more by females and students attending higher SES schools.
– Males and students attending lower SES schools tended to use a greater number of learning strategies that did not relate to achievement, including memorization and elaboration.
– Strategies that did not relate to achievement were used more
frequently by students from higher SES families.
Using an opportunity-propensity framework to estimate individual-, classroom-, and school-level predictors of middle school science achievement
When a more comprehensive set of opportunity and propensity variables are used in a SEM to predict eighth-grade science achievement, what are the relative magnitudes of the associations measured in the model, and which opportunity and propensity variables have the strongest relationships to the science achievement outcome?
1.Are charters with different academic models located in different demographic contexts, as measured by the types of students attending those charters and their neighboring TPSs?
2.How does the student composition of charters with a given academic model differ from those of their neighboring TPSs?
3.How uniform are the patterns of differences between charters with a given academic model and their neighboring TPSs?
Does students’ decision of STEM enrollment in college differ systematically by family SES?
Academic Performance of African American High School Students Related to Socioeconomic Status and School Size
– There was a negative correlation between school level SES and reading at -.50, -.44 for mathematics, and -.35 for science performance.
– There was a positive correlation between school size and reading at .10, .01 for mathematics, and .07 for science performance.
– School level SES and school size had significant impact on school
performance in reading.
– School level SES had significant impact on school performance in mathematics.
– School level SES and school size had significant impact on school performance in science.
Exposure to School and Classroom Racial Segregation in Charlotte-Mecklenburg High Schools and Students College Achievement
1. Do the effects of school racial segregation extend into early college outcomes among students graduating from CMS schools and entering the UNC system?
2. Is minority representation in the upper-track classes related to students’ first year college achievement?
3. Do the levels of within-school segregation due to tracking exacerbate the negative effects of attending a segregated black high school?
Money or Diversity? An Implementation Analysis of the Voluntary Transfer Program in St. Louis, 1999-2009
How did fiscal resources and human interests affect suburban implementation of the voluntary transfer program between 1999 and 2009?
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceptions of School Climate and Its Association with Student Engagement and Peer Aggression
Do Black, Hispanic, and White students differ in their perceptions of school climate?
Do the associations between authoritative school climate and student engagement as well as peer aggression differ for Black, Hispanic, and White students?
– Their findings indicate that attending a high school with better disciplinary order and stronger school attachment for the students is associated with a decreased likelihood of dropping out, above and beyond individual characteristics.
-They found that higher school SES translated to better school attachment, disciplinary order, and academic climate. Yet, disciplinary climate was the most positively influenced by school SES, with a one standard deviation (SD) increase in school SES being associated with about half a unit increase in disciplinary climate.
-The percentage of minority students was inversely related to school attachment, controlling for model variables.
-There is an indirect effect of school composition on dropping out. The larger the percentage of minority students the less attached they feel to their school so they are more likely to drop out.
– The researchers found that attending a high school with better school attachment greatly reduced the odds of a student being a dropout.
-Attending a school with more disciplinary order also directly de- creased the likelihood that a student was currently identified as a dropout.
-They also found that both prior math achievement and student SES were again strong predictors of whether a student had ever dropped out.
If a student enrolls in a charter school rather than a non-charter school in the same district, what will the student encounter in terms of racial isolation, poverty level, and the school’s performance?
The Intersection of School Ethnic Composition and Structure: Predicting Social and Academic Outcomes Among Latino Students
Research Question 1: How is school ethnic composition, as measured by the proportion of same-ethnicity peers in a school and school ethnic diversity, related to social and academic outcomes among Latino students?
Research Question 2: Does the relation between school ethnic composition and social and academic outcomes among Latino students depend on other characteristics of the school context?
Research Question 3: Does the relation between school ethnic composition and social and academic outcomes among Latino students depend on the characteristics of students?
School Substance Use Norms and Racial Composition Moderate Parental and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use
Examine the effects of school substance use norms and school racial composition in predicting adolescent substance use and in moderating parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use.
What is the average gap at different ranges of Black student density, with and without accounting for student and school characteristics?
Growing the Roots of STEM Majors: Female Math and Science High School Faculty and the Participation of Students in STEM
What is the role of the demographics of high school faculty, more specifically the proportion of female math and science teachers, on college students’ decisions to declare and/or major in STEM?
- To what extent are value added assessments (VAA) estimates of teacher and school performance affected by summer learning differences?
- Can any summer effect be ameliorated without biannual assessments (i.e., fall and spring) using control covariates that are typically available to school districts, such as student demographics and contextual characteristics of classrooms and schools?
- To what degree does including summer in VAA estimates result in biases against teachers and schools serving low income and ethnic minority children?
School Choice, Racial Segregation, and Poverty Concentration: Evidence from Pennsylvania Charter School Transfers
1)To what extent are students and schools affected by movement between charter schools and traditional public schools (TPS)? 2) Are student transfers from TPS to brick and mortar (B&M) charter schools associated with increasing racial isolation? How does this vary by geography? 3) Are student transfers from TPSs to charter schools associated with increasing exposure to low-income students? 3) How does this vary by geography? 4) What are the demographic characteristics of the TPSs from which cyber students transfer?
The â€œPost-Racialâ€ Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts
Does having residents from multiple jurisdictions make it more difficult for districts to maintain support for student assignment policies, particularly given population differences between city and suburban residents? Does a district’s ability to maintain political support for integration differ by whether the goals and means were race-conscious or race-neutral?
Can Class-Based Substitute for Race-Based Student Assignment Plans? Evidence from Wake County, North Carolina.
1. Were Wake County schools more racially integrated under the race-based or the socioeconomic-based pupil assignment plan? 2. Was overall student achievement higher under the race-based or socioeconomic-based plan? 3. Did achievement gaps increase or decrease under the race-based or socioeconomic-based plan? 4. Was school racial composition correlated with changes in performance under the race-based or socioeconomic assignment plan?
The Cumulative Disadvantages of First- and Second-Generation Segregation for Middle School Achievement
1) What was the extent of first- and second-generation segregation in CMS middle schools as of 1997? 2) What student- and school-level factors predicted middle school track placements and achievement in reading and mathematics? 3) Do segregated minority schools and disproportionate minority lower track levels contribute to students’ achievement exclusive of other factors? 4.Do first- and second-generation segregation operate to sequentially and cumulatively disadvantage those who experience it?
Classroom-Based Inequalities and Achievement Gaps in the First Grade: The Role of Classroom Context and Access to Qualified and Effective Teachers
1) What are the magnitudes of URM (underrepresented minorities) achievement gaps in reading and math at the beginning of first grade, and to what degree do they change during first grade?
2) Do student inputs vary across classrooms and schools? What are the magnitudes of school based achievement gaps that develop in the first grade? Do URM have equitable access to classrooms with contextual characteristics conducive to learning? Highly qualified teachers and effective teachers?
3) And if not what degree does each contribute to the achievement gaps that accumulate during the first grade?
High School Socioeconomic Composition and College Choice: Multilevel Mediation Via Organizational Habitus, School, Practices, Peer and Staff Attitudes
1) Is high school socioeconomic composition (SEC) predictive of students’ college choice?
2) Does SEC have a direct effect on college choice and indirect effects mediated by college choice organizational habitus (CCOH) related school practices and peer, family, and staff attitudes?
3) To what degree do direct and indirect effects of SEC depend on student and school input characteristics?
Kindergarten Black-White Test Score Gaps: Re-examining the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and School Quality with New Data
1. What are the Black-White gaps in math, reading, and working memory?
2. Do these gaps change over kindergarten?
3. To what extent does SES explain black-white gaps at kindergarten entry?
4. What role does SES play in the development of black-white gaps over kindergarten?
5. What role do schools play in the development of black-white gaps over kindergarten?
Does it Matter Who Your Schoolmates Are? An Investigation of the Association between School Composition, School Processes and Mathematics Achievement in the Early Years of Primary Education
(1) What are the effects of school composition with regard to prior math achievement, SES, ethnicity and sex on mathematics achievement at the end of the second grade? (2) Are there differential school composition effects? In other words: are all students affected equally by their school composition or are some specific subgroups more sensitive to their school composition than others? (3) Do certain school processes mediate the association between school composition and mathematics achievement at the end of the second grade?
Do teachers’ instructional practices differentially affect the mathematics achievement of kindergarten students whose backgrounds differ in terms of their race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and mathematic academic readiness?
How does students’ relationships with school adults impact their educational experiences and future college and career choices?
What motivates middle class parents to send their children to a racially and socioeconomically integrated urban school? What were the processes through which they came to that decision?
How did parents’ views of social class and, especially, race affect their decision-making?
– Author reports a randomized controlled trial that assigns repeated intergroup contact between members of different ethnic groups. The contact results in exclusionary attitudes toward the outgroup.
– This experiment demonstrates that even very minor demographic
change causes strong exclusionary reactions.
– Exclusionary attitudes can be stimulated by even very minor, noninvasive demographic change: in this case, the introduction of only two persons. Overtly threatening behavior by newcomers is not a necessary component for the stimulation of exclusionary attitudes.
– Developed nations and politically liberal subnational units are expected to experience a politically conservative shift as international migration brings increased intergroup contact.
This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years.
Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/ Ethnic Achievement Gaps
1. Are the benefits of self-affirmation for black and Hispanic middle school students greater in potentially more threatening school contexts, characterized by the group presence and relative academic position of racially marginalized students?
2. What are the prospects of these interventions to close racial achievement gaps in more and less threatening school environments?
Inequality in Children's Contexts: Trends and Correlates of Economic Segregation Between School Districts, 1990-2010
How segregated are schools in the 100 largest metropolitan areas by income from the 1990s to the late 2000s? What are possible causes for segregation between the school districts?
Is housing status a predictor of student achievement in a large urban district, even after controlling for common correlates like income and race? Is the homelessness effect mediated by attendance? What school-level factors predict homeless student achievement?